Model Earth



Model Earth

Model Earth

Why We Need Models

Frigg, R., Hartmann, S. (2012). Models in Science. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2012 Edition). Edward N. Zalta (ed.).

Bull, J.J. (2014) Chapter 3: How Non-Scientists Use The Scientific Method and Chapter 4: Models Are The Building Blocks Of Science from the textbook for the course Biology for Business, Law and Liberal Arts (Bio301d), an undergraduate, non-majors science course taught at the University of Texas.

Ford, F. A. (2009). Modeling the environment: an introduction to system dynamics models of environmental systems. Island Press.


State of New Jersey. (2004). New Jersey Stormwater Best Management Practices Manual. 5-1 – 5-27.

Bromley, C.; Randle, T.; Grant, G.; Thorne, C. (2005). Physical modeling of the removal of Glines Canyon Dam and Lake Mills from the Elwha River, WA. Proceedings of the 2005 watershed management conference; Williamsburg, VA. Reston, VA: American Society of Civil Engineers.

Pielke, R. A. (1999). Who decides? Forecasts and responsibilities in the 1997 Red River flood. Applied Behavioral Science Review, 7(2), 83-101.

What You Can Do With Models: Show Form and Function

Schneps, M. (1989). Private universe project: Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Video resource retrieved February 6, 2015, from

To see the nearly circular orbit of the Earth for yourself and compare it to other planetary orbits visit the Planetary Orbit Simulator Module of the Nebraska Astronomy Applet Project.

What You Can Do With Models: Make Predictions

Qin, D., Plattner, G. K., Tignor, M., Allen, S. K., Boschung, J., Nauels, A., ... & Midgley, P. M. (2014). Climate change 2013: The physical science basis. Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge University Press.

Global Ensemble Forecast System (GEFS). (n.d.). Retrieved February 6, 2015, from

Baez, J. C., & Tweed, D. (2013). Monte Carlo Methods in Climate Science. Math Horizons, 21(2), 5-8.

Silver, N. (2012). The signal and the noise: Why so many predictions fail--but some don't. New York: Penguin Press.

Manage a Watershed

Maupin, M.A., Kenny, J.F., Hutson, S.S., Lovelace, J.K., Barber, N.L., and Linsey, K.S.,( 2014). Estimated use of water in the United States in 2010: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1405, 56 p.,

United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2001). Managing Storm Water Runoff to Prevent Contamination of Drinking Water. Source Water Protection Practices Bulletin.

United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2006). Wetlands: Protecting Life and Property from Flooding.

Utah Climate Center. (2009). Scientists find patterns in Utah's wet-dry cycles: Re-examining Drought in Utah. Utah State University. Drought.pdf

Heat Island Impacts | Heat Island Effect | U.S. EPA. (2013, January 1). Retrieved February 6, 2015, from

Ice, G. G., Neary, D. G., & Adams, P. W. (2004). Effects of wildfire on soils and watershed processes. Journal of Forestry, 102(6), 16-20.

Miley, K. (2011, March). Management of Debris, Waste, and Operational Issues at a Multi-Jurisdictional Inland Oil Spill: A Coffeyville, Kansas, Refinery Oil Spill Case Study. In International Oil Spill Conference Proceedings (IOSC) (Vol. 2011, No. 1, p. abs35). American Petroleum Institute.

Farmer, A. (1997). Managing environmental pollution. London: Routledge.

United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2013). Impacts of Climate Change on the Occurrence of Harmful Algal Blooms.

Cooley, H., Fulton, J., Gleick, P. H., Ross, N., & Luu, P. (2011). Water for energy: Future water needs for electricity in the intermountain West. Pacific Institute, Oakland.

Utah Division of Water Resources. (2012). The Water – Energy Nexus In Utah: Meeting the Water and Energy Challenge.

Sinisi, L. (2011). Guidance on water supply and sanitation in extreme weather events. R. Aertgeerts (Ed.). World Health Organization.

Purcell, M. (2010). Green River Basin Water Plan: Technical Memoranda. Basin Water Use Profile – Industrial. Wyoming Water Development Office.

Water Allocation: An Ongoing Challenge

Kenney, D. (2003). Water allocation and management in the western United States: An overview. In International Working Conference on Water Rights: Institutional options for improving water allocation, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Fort, D. D. (2002) Water and Population in the American West. Human Population and Freshwater Resources: US Cases and International Perspectives, Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies Bulletin Series, (107), 17-24.

Apple, D. D. (2004). Evolution of U. S. Water Policy: Emphasis on the West. Women in Natural Resources, 24(3), 16-25.

Gelt, J. (1997). Sharing Colorado River water: history, public policy and the Colorado River Compact. Water Resources Research Center, University of Arizona.

Tarlock, A. D. (2000). Prior appropriation: Rule, principle, or rhetoric. NDL Rev., 76, 881.

Stephens, D. P. (2011). The Transfer of Agricultural Water to Municipal and Industrial Usages.

Halverson, A. (2010). An entirely synthetic fish: How rainbow trout beguiled America and overran the world. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Powell, J. W., Gilbert, G. K., Dutton, C. E., Drummond, W., & Thompson, A. H. (1879). Report on the Lands of the Arid Region of the United States: With a More Detailed Account of the Lands of Utah. With Maps (Vol. 3). Governmentprint. Office.

Water in the West: What the Future Holds

Olsen, J. Rolf, Julie Kiang and Reagan Waskom, (editors). 2010. Workshop on Nonstationarity, Hydrologic Frequency Analysis, and Water Management. Colorado Water Institute Information Series No. 109.

U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation. (2012). Colorado River Basin: Water Supply and Demand Study Technical Report C – Water Demand Assessment.

Donkor, E. A., Mazzuchi, T. A., Soyer, R., & Alan Roberson, J. (2012). Urban water demand forecasting: review of methods and models. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, 140(2), 146-159.

Milly, P. C. D., Julio, B., Malin, F., Robert, M., Zbigniew, W., Dennis, P., & Ronald, J. S. (2007). Stationarity is dead. Ground Water News & Views, 4(1), 6-8.

Roy, S. B., Chen, L., Girvetz, E., Maurer, E. P., Mills, W. B., & Grieb, T. M. (2010). Evaluating sustainability of projected water demands under future climate change scenarios. New York: Natural Resources Defense Council.

APA format:

Genetic Science Learning Center. (2015, March 15) Model Earth. Retrieved March 21, 2017, from

CSE format:

Model Earth [Internet]. Salt Lake City (UT): Genetic Science Learning Center; 2015 [cited 2017 Mar 21] Available from

Chicago format:

Genetic Science Learning Center. "Model Earth." Learn.Genetics.March 15, 2015. Accessed March 21, 2017.

APA format:

Genetic Science Learning Center. (2015, March 15) Model Earth. Retrieved March 21, 2017, from

CSE format:

Model Earth [Internet]. Salt Lake City (UT): Genetic Science Learning Center; 2015 [cited 2017 Mar 21] Available from

Chicago format:

Genetic Science Learning Center. "Model Earth." Learn.Genetics.March 15, 2015. Accessed March 21, 2017.