Nutrient
Food Origin
Epigenetic Role
Methionine
Sesame seeds, brazil nuts, fish, peppers, spinach
SAM synthesis
Folic Acid
Leafy vegetables, sunflower seeds, baker's yeast, liver
Methionine synthesis
Vitamin B12
Meat, liver, shellfish, milk
Methionine synthesis
Vitamin B6
Meats, whole grain products, vegetables, nuts
Methionine synthesis
SAM-e (SAM)
Popular dietary supplement pill; unstable in food
Enzymes transfer methyl groups from SAM directly to the DNA
Choline
Egg yolks, liver, soy, cooked beef, chicken, veal and turkey
Methyl donor to SAM
Betaine
Wheat, spinach, shellfish, and sugar beets
Break down the toxic byproducts of SAM synthesis
Resveratrol
Red wine
Removes acetyl groups from histones, improving health (shown in lab mice)
Genistein
Soy, soy products
Increased methylation, cancer prevention, unknown mechanism
Sulforaphane
Broccoli
Increased histone acetylation turning on anti-cancer genes
Butyrate
A compound produced in the intestine when dietary fiber is fermented
Increased histone acetylation turning on 'protective' genes, increased lifespan (shown in the lab in flies)
Diallyl sulphide (DADS)
Garlic
Increased histone acetylation turning on anti-cancer genes