Strayer, D.L. & Drews, F.A. (2007). Cell-phone–induced driver distraction. Current Directions in Psychological
Science, 16:3, 128-131.
In this study, researchers showed that even hands-free phone conversations made the test subjects worse drivers (in a
driving simulator, so no one would get hurt). Even though the drivers didn't take their eyes off the road, their
brains were distracted enough that they didn't noticing everything that was in front of them—a type of
 Watson, J.M. & Strayer, D.L. (2010). Supertaskers: profiles in extraordinary multitasking ability.
In this study, the researchers used an even harder multitasking test. Subjects answered math questions and memorized
words while also driving (again in a driving simulator). While this test was probably more demanding than most cell
phone conversations, it was easier to standardize the test and measure the effect across multiple trials. When subjects
in this study (with a few exceptions) were multitasking, they did worse on all of the tasks compared to when they were
doing just one of them.
 Sanbonmatsu, D.M., Strayer, D.L., Medeiros-Ward, N. & Watson, J.M. (2013). Who multi-tasks and why? Multi-tasking
ability, perceived multi-tasking ability, impulsivity, and sensation seeking. PLoS one, 8:1, e54402. doi:
 Ophir, E., Nas, C. & Wagner, A.D. (2009). Cognitive control in media multitaskers. Proceedings of the National
Academy of Sciences of the USA, 106, 15583-15587. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0903620106
 Strayer, D.L., Turrill, J., Cooper, J.M., Coleman, J.R., Medeiros-Ward, N. & Biondi, F. (2015). Assessing
cognitive distraction in the automobile. Human Factors, 57:8, 1300-1324. doi: 10.1177/0018720815575149
National Safety Council. Distracted driving: one call can change everything. Retrieved 11 February, 2016, from
Strayer, D.L., Watson, J.M. & Drews, F.A. (2011). Cognitive distraction while multitasking in the automobile. The
Psychology of Learning and Motivation, 54, 29-57. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-385527.00002-4.